Sustainable Growth and Development

On the 1st of January, 2016, the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Growth came into force. Implemented during by the UN, it aims to accomplish 17 goals:
No poverty
Zero hunger
Good health and well-being
Quality Education
Gender Equality
Clean Water and Sanitation
Affordable and Clean Energy
Decent Work and Economic Growth
Industry, Innovation and Infrastructure
Reduced Inequalities
Sustainable Cities and Communities
Responsible Consumption and Production
Climate Action
Life Below Water
Life on Land
Peace, Justice and Strong Institutions
Partnership for the Goals

This agenda calls for all nations and all people to work towards these goals. These goals are not legally binding, however governments are expected to take initiatives to incorporate these goals into their national framework.

There is a level of improvement in material living standards (more jobs, better wages) and non material living standards (decline in child mortality rates, access to clean water and sanitation) which has been achieved in some countries, however, the progress itself has been uneven. Some nations have rising disparities due to economic shocks such as conflicts. This makes it difficult for growth to occur, because investment is too risky.
Achieving a balanced distribution of wealth and eliminating poverty is more difficult during times of economic uncertainty, because consumer and business confidence levels are low, and there tends to be a weaker labour force. In theory, poverty can only be eliminated if the economic growth occurring is sustainable. Generally, rapid, unsustainable growth leads to wealth disparities or job instability.

Many countries with high levels of poverty have young populations. This is likely to lead in a demographic dividend, which is an acceleration in economic growth due to and increasing labour force.
Migration is also increasing as a whole, particularly from developing nations with high poverty levels. This will lead to a mutually beneficial exchange with labour shortages being met in one country and remittances being sent to another country. Internal migration is also increasing, which pushes countries towards urbanisation. This improves both material and non material living standards, as well as increasing GDP growth, due to more labour.

The over exploitation of ecosystems, unsustainable production/consumption and population growth makes it more difficult to achieve the goals for sustainability.

Both public sector and private sectors need to be aligned with the goals to be achieved. An increased, or increasing availability of resources will drive economic growth.

Changes in technology could also aid in achieving these goals. For example, the increasing availability of vaccinations has greatly improved non material living standards. Likewise, the increasing availability of better capital resources may help increase productivity and boost AD for these countries.



  1. It’s extremely unlikely that these goals will all be acheived by 2030. In many countries, issues of sustainability and climatic change are not taken seriously, and more nations push towards rapid growth in numbers.

    Liked by 2 people

    1. I agree. Some of these goals, such as quality education and gender equality are achievable, but others such as no poverty and zero hunger are not.

      Liked by 1 person

  2. How are third world countries expected to keep up with these goals when they can’t afford the necessary technology to keep both a sustainable economic date of growth and sustainable environment rate of growth?

    Liked by 2 people

    1. That’s true ! Instead of having exceedingly high goals for everyone, should they not focus on developing third world countries to the same state as more developed countries and help them become more independent?

      Liked by 1 person

    2. I think it is more beneficial for countries with high economic growth to be helping others countries with lower levels of economic growth. That way everyone can prosper as exports can be higher for everyone.

      Liked by 2 people

  3. It would be difficult to achieve non material living standards if migration increases rapidly because there might be more pollution in the city which affects people’s health. Also, there might be discrimination against migratory people which not achieving equality goals. Therefore, the government should provide regulations to prevent the rapid increase in migration in order to increase the economic growth.

    Liked by 1 person

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